- The Last Supper (Mark 14:12–31; parallels Matt 26:17–35; Luke 22:7–38. John 13:1–14:31. Cf. 1 Cor 11:23‒26)
- The Farewell Discourses (John 14:1–17:26)
- Jesus at Gethsemane (Mark 14:32–42; Matt 26:36–47; Luke 22:39–46; John 18:1)
- Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus (Mark 14:43–52; Matt 26:47–56; Luke 22:47–53; John 18:2–3)
- Jesus before the Jewish Authorities (Mark 14:43–65; Matt 26:57–68; Luke 22:54–71; John 18–28)
|Walter Rane, "In Remembrance of Me"|
The Last Supper: Mark 14:12‒25; John 13:1‒35
While Matthew 26:17–30 and Luke 22:7–38 largely follow Mark in their portrayal of the Last Supper as a Passover meal at the end of which Jesus instituted the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, John portrays it simply as the last meal that Jesus shares with his disciples, at which he performs another ritual, the washing of their feet.
See the discussion in Greater Love Hath No Man, 104–114.
12On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the paschal lamb, his disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to go to make preparations that you may eat the Passover?” 13So he sent two of his disciples and said to them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him, 14and wherever he enters, say to the master of the house, ‘The Teacher asks, “Where is my guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’’’ 15Then he himself will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. There make preparations for us.” 16And so the disciples went out and came into the city, found just what he told them, and prepared the Passover.
17When it was evening, he arrived with the Twelve. 18While they were reclining at the table and eating, Jesus said to them, “Truly I say to you that one of you who is eating with me will hand me over.” 19They began to be upset and said one after another, “It isn’t me, is it?” 20Then he said to them, “It is one of the Twelve who dips into the bowl with me. 21Yes, the Son of Man is going as it has been written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is handed over! It would have been better for that man if he had not been born.”
22Then as they were eating, after Jesus had taken bread and blessed it, he broke it, gave it to them, and said, “Take it, this is my body.” 23And after he had taken the cup and given thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 24He said to them, “This is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many. 25Truly I say to you that I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.”
|J. Kirk Richards, "Greatest in the Kingdom"|
1Before the festival of the Passover, because Jesus knew that his time had arrived to pass on from this world to his Father, because he had loved his own who were in the world, he loved them until the end. 2Then, while the dinner was in progress and when the Adversary had already put it into the heart of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot to betray him, 3because Jesus knew that the Father had put all things into his hands and that he had come from God and was returning to God, 4he arose up from the feast, set aside his outer clothing, and, after picking up a linen cloth, tied it around himself. 5Then he poured water into a wash basin and began to wash the feet of his disciples and dry them with the linen cloth that was tied around him. 6He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, “Lord, are you washing my feet?” 7Jesus answered and said to him, “You do not understand what I am doing just yet, but after these things you will come to understand.” 8Peter said to him, “You will never wash my feet!” Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you do not have a place with me.” 9Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not just my feet but also my hands and my head!” 10Jesus said to him, “Whoever has bathed does not need to wash, except his feet, but is clean all over. You are clean but not all of you,” 11for he knew who was about to betray him. For this reason, he said, “You are not all clean.”
12So, when he had washed their feet, picked up his outer clothes, and reclined again at the table, Jesus asked them, “Do you know what I have done for you? 13You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord,’ and you have spoken well, for that is what I am. 14Then if I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you ought to wash each other’s feet. 15You see, I have given a pattern to you: namely, you should also do just what I have done for you. 16Truly, truly I say to you,
A servant is not greater than his master,
Nor is a messenger greater than he who sent him.
17 If you understand these things,
You are blessed if you do them.
18I am not speaking about all of you—I know those whom I have chosen—but that the scripture may be fulfilled: ‘He who has eaten bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.’ 19 From now on, I am telling you this before it happens, so that when it does happen, you may believe that I Am. 20Truly, truly I say to you,
Whoever receives one whom I send,
Whoever receives me,
Receives the one who sent me.”
21After Jesus had said these things, he was deeply upset in spirit, testified, and said, “Truly, truly I say to you, one of you will betray me.” 22The disciples began looking at one another, uncertain as to which one he meant. 23One of the disciples was reclining at the table, leaning in Jesus’ embrace—he was the one whom Jesus loved. 24Simon Peter motioned to him to ask whom it was he was talking about. 25So he, leaning back further against Jesus’ chest, asked, “Lord, who is it?” 26Jesus answered, “He is the one for whom I will dip a piece of bread and to whom I will give it.” Then after he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas son of Simon Iscariot. 27After he had taken the piece of bread, Satan entered into him. Jesus said to him, “That which you are about to do, do quickly.” 28No one reclining at the table knew why Jesus said this to him. 29Some of them were thinking that because Judas kept the common purse, Jesus was saying to him, “Buy what we need for the festival” or that he might give something to the poor. 30So, when he had taken the piece of bread, he left immediately, and it was night.
31And so when he had gone out, Jesus said,
“Now has the Son of Man been glorified,
And God has been glorified in him.
32 Since God has been glorified in him,
God will also glorify him in himself
And will glorify him right away.
33Little children, I am with you for yet a short time. You will seek for me, yet as I said to ‘the Jews,’ even so now I say to you now: ‘Where I am going, you cannot come.’
34 A new commandment I give to you:
Love one another.
Even as I have loved you
You, too, should love one another.
35 In this will all know,
You are my disciples
If you have love one for one another.”
Excerpts from the Farewell Discourses: John 14:1‒21; 15:1‒17; 17:1‒26
Following John’s account of the Last Supper, the Fourth Gospel features a series of extended discourses that Jesus delivered to his disciples, first in the Upper Room and then, apparently, as they walked from the city through the Qidron Valley to the Garden of Gethsemane. Often known as the “Farewell Discourses,” though delivered in the first instance to his closest followers, they are written in a way that they apply to disciples in every age. They conclude in John 17:1‒26 with a powerful prayer of Jesus to the Father, known as either the “Intercessory Prayer” or sometimes as the “Great High Priestly Prayer.” As is often the case in John, the words of Jesus are frequently poetic or semi-poetic, which we have tried to indicate by laying out such lines in verse.
See the discussion in Greater Love Hath No Man, 121–23.
Believe in God,
Believe also in me.
2In my Father’s house are many places to live. If not, would I have told you that I am going to prepare a place for you? 3Yet if I go and prepare a place for you, I will return and take you to myself, so that where I am, you may be also. 4You know the way to where I am going.” 5Thomas said to him, “Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?” 6Jesus said to him,
“I Am the Way,
And the Truth,
And the Life.
No one comes to the Father,
Except he comes through me.
7 If you had known me,
You would have known the Father.
From now on you know him,
And you have seen him.”
8Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and that is enough for us.” 9And Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you this long, and you have not known me, Philip?
Whoever has seen me,
He has seen the Father.
How are you saying, ‘Show us the Father’? 10Do you not believe
That I am in the Father,
And the Father is in me?
As to the things that I am saying to you
I am not speaking of myself,
But the Father who dwells in me,
He performs his works.
11 Believe in me,
That I am in the Father,
And the Father in me.
If you do not believe in me,
Believe because of the works themselves.
12Truly, truly I say to you,
Whoever believes in me,
The works that I do,
He will do.
And he will do greater works than these,
Because I am going to the Father.
13And whatever you ask in my name, that I will do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
14 If you ask me anything in my name,
I will do it.
15 “If you love me,
You will keep my commandments.
16 I will ask the Father,
And he will give you another Intercessor,
That he may be with you forever.
17 The Spirit of Truth,
Whom the world cannot receive,
Because it neither sees nor knows him.
You know him,
Because he dwells in you,
And he will be in you.
18 I will not leave you as orphans,
I am coming to you.
19 In a little while the world will no longer see me,
but you see me:
Because I live,
You, too, will live.
20In that day you will know,
I am in my Father
And you in me,
And I in you.
21 Whoever has my commandments and keeps them,
He is the one who loves me.
Whoever loves me,
Will be loved by my Father.
I also will love him,
And I will reveal myself to him.
1 I Am the True Vine,
And my Father is the Vinedresser.
2 Every branch in me that does not bear fruit,
He cuts off,
And every branch that does bear fruit,
He prunes it,
That it may bear more fruit.
5 I Am the Vine,
You are the branches.
Whoever dwells in me and I in him,
This one bears much fruit.
Because apart from me,
You cannot do anything.
6 Unless someone dwells in me,
He is cast out and withers like a branch,
People gather such branches,
And they cast them into the fire
And the branches burn.
7 If you dwell in me,
And my proclamation remains in you,
Whatever you wish to ask,
It will come about for you.
8 In this has my Father been glorified,
That you should bear much fruit,
And should become my disciples.
9 Just as my Father has loved me,
Even so have I loved you.
Dwell in my love.
10 If you obey my commandments,
You will dwell in my love.
Just as I have obeyed my Father’s commandments,
And I dwell in his love.
11 I have spoken these things to you,
That my joy may be in you,
And that your joy may be complete.
12 This is my commandment,
That you love one another,
Just as I have loved you.
13 No one has greater love than this,
Than to lay down his life for his friends.
14 You are my friends,
If you do whatever I command you.
15 I am no longer calling you servants,
because a servant does not know
what his master is doing.
I have called you friends,
because everything I have heard from my Father
I have made known to you.
16 You did not choose me,
but I chose you and appointed you
to go out and bear fruit,
and your fruit remains,
so that whatever you ask the Father in my name
he will give it to you.
17 These things I command you:
love one another.”
Glorify your Son,
That the Son may glorify you,
2 Just as you have given him power over all flesh,
To give eternal life to those,
To each one that you have given him.
3 Now this is eternal life,
That they may know you, the only true God,
And Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.
4 I have glorified you on the earth,
By completing the work that you gave me to do.
5 And now glorify me in your presence, Father,
With that glory I had with you before the world was.
to those people whom you gave me out of the world.
They were yours,
and you gave them to me,
and they have kept your word.
7 Now they know
that everything you have given me
comes from you.
8 The sayings that you gave to me
I gave to them,
and they received them
and know with certainty
that I have come from your side,
and they have believed
that you sent me.
I do not pray for the world,
Rather I pray for those whom you have given to me,
Because they are yours.
10 And all mine are yours,
And yours mine,
And I have been glorified in them.
But they are in the world,
And I am coming to you.
Holy Father, keep them in your name,
The name that you gave to me,
That they may be one,
Even as we are one.
12 When I was with them,
I kept them in your name,
The name you gave to me,
And I protected them,
And not one of them has perished,
Except the son of destruction,
That the scripture might be fulfilled.
13 But now I am coming to you,
And I am speaking these things in the world,
That they may have my joy,
Joy fulfilled in them.
14 I have given them your word,
And the world hated them,
Because they are not of the world,
Just as I am not of the world.
15 I am not praying that you take them out of the world,
But that you preserve them from the Evil One.
16 They are not of the world,
Just as I am not of the world.
17 Make them holy in your truth,
Your word is truth.
18 Just as you sent me into the world,
So I have sent them into the world.
19 For them I make myself holy,
That they, too, may be made holy in truth.
But also for those who will believe in me through their word,
21 That they may all be one,
Just as you, Father, are in me,
And I in you,
That they also may be one in us,
That the world may believe that you sent me.
I have given to them,
That they may be one,
Just as we are one.
23 I am in them, and you in me,
That they might attain perfect unity,
That the world may know that you sent me,
And that you have loved them
just as you have loved me.
to be with me where I am,
that they may see my glory,
which you have given me,
because you have loved me
from before the foundation of the world.
But I have known you,
And they know that you sent me.
26 I have made known your name,
And I will make it known
So that the love with which you have loved me,
May be in them,
And I in them.
|Carl Bloch, "Christ in Gethsemane"|
Matthew and Luke largely parallel Mark’s description of Jesus’ experiences in Gethsemane, with Luke making some important changes and additions. Changes include reducing the number of times that Jesus prays and finds his three closest disciples sleeping, which reduces their implicit condemnation, and important additions include recording the appearance of an angel to strengthen him and his “sweating great drops of blood” as a result of his agony,” which has led us to include the Lucan passages below.
See the discussion in Greater Love Hath No Man, 123–131.
26After they had sung a psalm, they left for the Mount of Olives. 27Then Jesus said to them, “All of you will fall away because it is written, ‘I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ 28Yet when I have been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee. 29But Peter said to him, “Even if everyone else falls away, I will not!” 30Jesus said to him, “Truly, I say to you, this very night, before the rooster crows twice, you yourself will deny me three times.” 31But he kept insisting, “Even it is necessary that I die with you, I will not deny you!” And they all kept saying the same thing.
32Then they came to a place named Gethsemane, and he said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” 33He took Peter, James, and John with him, and he began to feel overwhelmed and distressed. 34Then he said to them, “My soul is consumed with grief, to the point of death. Remain here and keep watch.”
35After he went a bit further, he fell on the ground and prayed that if it were possible, the hour might pass him by. 36And he said, “Abba! Father! All things are possible for you. Take this cup from me, yet not what I want but what you desire.”
37Then he returned and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Were you not able to keep watch for a single hour? 38Keep watching and praying that you not come into trial. While the spirit is willing, the flesh is weak.”
39After he had gone back, he prayed again, saying the same thing.
40When he returned, he found them sleeping again, for their eyes were weighed down, and they did not know how to answer him.
41He came back a third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and feeling drowsy? Enough! The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is being delivered into the hands of sinful men. 42Get up, let us go! The one who is betraying me is almost here.”
|Giotto, "Kiss of Judas"|
Arrested, Abandoned, Examined, and Denied: Mark 14:43–72; John 18:2–27
Matthew and Luke parallel Mark’s version of these events, with Luke shortening the account at times to lessen the failings of the disciples, even of Judas, and depicting a more compassionate Jesus, adding, for instance, that Jesus healed the ear of the high priest’s servant (see Luke 22:51). John adds considerable details, adding to the usual assumption that the source of or authority behind this Gospel, the Beloved Disciple, was in fact present at many of these events.
See the discussion in Greater Love Hath No Man, 131–38.
|Carl Bloch, "The Denial of Peter"|